Java死锁范例以及如何分析死锁

死锁是两个甚至多个线程被永久阻塞时的一种运行局面,这种局面的生成伴随着至少两个线程和两个或者多个资源。在这里我已写好一个简单的程序,它将会引起死锁方案然后我们就会明白如何分析它。

Java死锁范例

ThreadDeadlock.java

package com.journaldev.threads;

public class ThreadDeadlock {

    public static void main(String[] args) throws InterruptedException {
        Object obj1 = new Object();
        Object obj2 = new Object();
        Object obj3 = new Object();

        Thread t1 = new Thread(new SyncThread(obj1, obj2), "t1");
        Thread t2 = new Thread(new SyncThread(obj2, obj3), "t2");
        Thread t3 = new Thread(new SyncThread(obj3, obj1), "t3");

        t1.start();
        Thread.sleep(5000);
        t2.start();
        Thread.sleep(5000);
        t3.start();

    }

}

class SyncThread implements Runnable{
    private Object obj1;
    private Object obj2;

    public SyncThread(Object o1, Object o2){
        this.obj1=o1;
        this.obj2=o2;
    }
    @Override
    public void run() {
        String name = Thread.currentThread().getName();
        System.out.println(name + " acquiring lock on "+obj1);
        synchronized (obj1) {
         System.out.println(name + " acquired lock on "+obj1);
         work();
         System.out.println(name + " acquiring lock on "+obj2);
         synchronized (obj2) {
            System.out.println(name + " acquired lock on "+obj2);
            work();
        }
         System.out.println(name + " released lock on "+obj2);
        }
        System.out.println(name + " released lock on "+obj1);
        System.out.println(name + " finished execution.");
    }
    private void work() {
        try {
            Thread.sleep(30000);
        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
}

在上面的程序中同步线程正完成Runnable的接口,它工作的是两个对象,这两个对象向对方寻求死锁而且都在使用同步阻塞。

在主函数中,我使用了三个为同步线程运行的线程,而且在其中每个线程中都有一个可共享的资源。

这些线程以向第一个对象获取封锁这种方式运行。但是当它试着像第二个对象获取封锁时,它就会进入等待状态,因为它已经被另一个线程封锁住了。这样,在线程引起死锁的过程中,就形成了一个依赖于资源的循环。

当我执行上面的程序时,就产生了输出,但是程序却因为死锁无法停止。

t1 acquiring lock on java.lang.Object@6d9dd520
t1 acquired lock on java.lang.Object@6d9dd520
t2 acquiring lock on java.lang.Object@22aed3a5
t2 acquired lock on java.lang.Object@22aed3a5
t3 acquiring lock on java.lang.Object@218c2661
t3 acquired lock on java.lang.Object@218c2661
t1 acquiring lock on java.lang.Object@22aed3a5
t2 acquiring lock on java.lang.Object@218c2661
t3 acquiring lock on java.lang.Object@6d9dd520

在此我们可以清楚地在输出结果中辨认出死锁局面,但是在我们实际生活所用的应用中,发现死锁并将它排除是非常难的。

分析死锁

为了分析一个死锁,我们需要关注下应用中的Java线程转存,在上一节中我已经解释了如何使用VisualVM收集资料或者jstack应用程序产生线程转存

以下就是上述程序的线程转存。

2012-12-27 19:08:34
Full thread dump Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (23.5-b02 mixed mode):

"Attach Listener" daemon prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a2814000 nid=0x4007 waiting on condition [0x0000000000000000]
   java.lang.Thread.State: RUNNABLE

"DestroyJavaVM" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a2801000 nid=0x1703 waiting on condition [0x0000000000000000]
   java.lang.Thread.State: RUNNABLE

"t3" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a204b000 nid=0x4d07 waiting for monitor entry [0x000000015d971000]
   java.lang.Thread.State: BLOCKED (on object monitor)
    at com.journaldev.threads.SyncThread.run(ThreadDeadlock.java:41)
    - waiting to lock <0x000000013df2f658> (a java.lang.Object)
    - locked <0x000000013df2f678> (a java.lang.Object)
    at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:722)

"t2" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a1073000 nid=0x4207 waiting for monitor entry [0x000000015d209000]
   java.lang.Thread.State: BLOCKED (on object monitor)
    at com.journaldev.threads.SyncThread.run(ThreadDeadlock.java:41)
    - waiting to lock <0x000000013df2f678> (a java.lang.Object)
    - locked <0x000000013df2f668> (a java.lang.Object)
    at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:722)

"t1" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a1072000 nid=0x5503 waiting for monitor entry [0x000000015d86e000]
   java.lang.Thread.State: BLOCKED (on object monitor)
    at com.journaldev.threads.SyncThread.run(ThreadDeadlock.java:41)
    - waiting to lock <0x000000013df2f668> (a java.lang.Object)
    - locked <0x000000013df2f658> (a java.lang.Object)
    at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:722)

"Service Thread" daemon prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a1038000 nid=0x5303 runnable [0x0000000000000000]
   java.lang.Thread.State: RUNNABLE

"C2 CompilerThread1" daemon prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a1037000 nid=0x5203 waiting on condition [0x0000000000000000]
   java.lang.Thread.State: RUNNABLE

"C2 CompilerThread0" daemon prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a1016000 nid=0x5103 waiting on condition [0x0000000000000000]
   java.lang.Thread.State: RUNNABLE

"Signal Dispatcher" daemon prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a4003000 nid=0x5003 runnable [0x0000000000000000]
   java.lang.Thread.State: RUNNABLE

"Finalizer" daemon prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a4800000 nid=0x3f03 in Object.wait() [0x000000015d0c0000]
   java.lang.Thread.State: WAITING (on object monitor)
    at java.lang.Object.wait(Native Method)
    - waiting on <0x000000013de75798> (a java.lang.ref.ReferenceQueue$Lock)
    at java.lang.ref.ReferenceQueue.remove(ReferenceQueue.java:135)
    - locked <0x000000013de75798> (a java.lang.ref.ReferenceQueue$Lock)
    at java.lang.ref.ReferenceQueue.remove(ReferenceQueue.java:151)
    at java.lang.ref.Finalizer$FinalizerThread.run(Finalizer.java:177)

"Reference Handler" daemon prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a4002000 nid=0x3e03 in Object.wait() [0x000000015cfbd000]
   java.lang.Thread.State: WAITING (on object monitor)
    at java.lang.Object.wait(Native Method)
    - waiting on <0x000000013de75320> (a java.lang.ref.Reference$Lock)
    at java.lang.Object.wait(Object.java:503)
    at java.lang.ref.Reference$ReferenceHandler.run(Reference.java:133)
    - locked <0x000000013de75320> (a java.lang.ref.Reference$Lock)

"VM Thread" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a2049800 nid=0x3d03 runnable 

"GC task thread#0 (ParallelGC)" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a300d800 nid=0x3503 runnable 

"GC task thread#1 (ParallelGC)" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a2001800 nid=0x3603 runnable 

"GC task thread#2 (ParallelGC)" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a2003800 nid=0x3703 runnable 

"GC task thread#3 (ParallelGC)" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a2004000 nid=0x3803 runnable 

"GC task thread#4 (ParallelGC)" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a2005000 nid=0x3903 runnable 

"GC task thread#5 (ParallelGC)" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a2005800 nid=0x3a03 runnable 

"GC task thread#6 (ParallelGC)" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a2006000 nid=0x3b03 runnable 

"GC task thread#7 (ParallelGC)" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a2006800 nid=0x3c03 runnable 

"VM Periodic Task Thread" prio=5 tid=0x00007fb0a1015000 nid=0x5403 waiting on condition 

JNI global references: 114

Found one Java-level deadlock:
=============================
"t3":
  waiting to lock monitor 0x00007fb0a1074b08 (object 0x000000013df2f658, a java.lang.Object),
  which is held by "t1"
"t1":
  waiting to lock monitor 0x00007fb0a1010f08 (object 0x000000013df2f668, a java.lang.Object),
  which is held by "t2"
"t2":
  waiting to lock monitor 0x00007fb0a1012360 (object 0x000000013df2f678, a java.lang.Object),
  which is held by "t3"

Java stack information for the threads listed above:
===================================================
"t3":
    at com.journaldev.threads.SyncThread.run(ThreadDeadlock.java:41)
    - waiting to lock <0x000000013df2f658> (a java.lang.Object)
    - locked <0x000000013df2f678> (a java.lang.Object)
    at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:722)
"t1":
    at com.journaldev.threads.SyncThread.run(ThreadDeadlock.java:41)
    - waiting to lock <0x000000013df2f668> (a java.lang.Object)
    - locked <0x000000013df2f658> (a java.lang.Object)
    at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:722)
"t2":
    at com.journaldev.threads.SyncThread.run(ThreadDeadlock.java:41)
    - waiting to lock <0x000000013df2f678> (a java.lang.Object)
    - locked <0x000000013df2f668> (a java.lang.Object)
    at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:722)

Found 1 deadlock.

这三个线程转存的输出清楚地说明了死锁环境和线程,以及包含死锁环境的资源。

为了分析死锁,我们需要关注死锁状态的线程,然后资源再等待去封锁,每一个资源都有一个独特的ID,有了这个ID我们就能发现是哪一个进程已经封锁住对象。举个例子,线程“t3”正在等待封锁0x000000013df2f658,但是它已经被线程“t1”封锁住了。

当我们分析死锁环境的时候,如果发现线程正在引起死锁,这是我们就要改变代码来避免死锁的产生。

避免死锁

有很多方针可供我们使用来避免死锁的局面。

  • 避免嵌套封锁:这是死锁最主要的原因的,如果你已经有一个资源了就要避免封锁另一个资源。如果你运行时只有一个对象封锁,那是几乎不可能出现一个死锁局面的。例如,这里是另一个运行中没有嵌套封锁的run()方法,而且程序运行没有死锁局面,运行得很成功。
public void run() {
    String name = Thread.currentThread().getName();
    System.out.println(name + " acquiring lock on " + obj1);
    synchronized (obj1) {
        System.out.println(name + " acquired lock on " + obj1);
        work();
    }
    System.out.println(name + " released lock on " + obj1);
    System.out.println(name + " acquiring lock on " + obj2);
    synchronized (obj2) {
        System.out.println(name + " acquired lock on " + obj2);
        work();
    }
    System.out.println(name + " released lock on " + obj2);

    System.out.println(name + " finished execution.");
}
  • 只对有请求的进行封锁:你应当只想你要运行的资源获取封锁,比如在上述程序中我在封锁的完全的对象资源。但是如果我们只对它所属领域中的一个感兴趣,那我们应当封锁住那个特殊的领域而并非完全的对象。
  • 避免无限期的等待:如果两个线程正在等待对象结束,无限期的使用线程加入,如果你的线程必须要等待另一个线程的结束,若是等待进程的结束加入最好准备最长时间。
原文链接: journaldev 翻译: ImportNew.com - 范琦琦
译文链接: http://www.importnew.com/9668.html
[ 转载请保留原文出处、译者和译文链接。]



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  1. 龙芯 说道:

    有关于reentrantLock死锁,案例分析?

    Thumb up 0 Thumb down 0

  2. kent kwan 说道:

    动态锁顺序死锁没必要分析得那么复杂吧 还要用vm工具来分析?

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