深入Spring Boot:快速集成Dubbo + Hystrix

背景

Hystrix 旨在通过控制那些访问远程系统、服务和第三方库的节点,从而对延迟和故障提供更强大的容错能力。Hystrix具备拥有回退机制和断路器功能的线程和信号隔离,请求缓存和请求打包,以及监控和配置等功能。

Dubbo是Alibaba开源的,目前国内最流行的java rpc框架。

本文介绍在spring应用里,怎么把Dubbo和Hystrix结合起来使用。

Spring Boot应用

Demo地址

生成dubbo集成spring boot的应用

对于不熟悉dubbo 集成spring boot应用的同学,可以在这里直接生成dubbo + spring boot的工程: http://start.dubbo.io/

配置spring-cloud-starter-netflix-hystrix

spring boot官方提供了对hystrix的集成,直接在pom.xml里加入依赖:

        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-netflix-hystrix</artifactId>
            <version>1.4.4.RELEASE</version>
        </dependency>

然后在Application类上增加@EnableHystrix来启用hystrix starter:

@SpringBootApplication
@EnableHystrix
public class ProviderApplication {

配置Provider端

在Dubbo的Provider上增加@HystrixCommand配置,这样子调用就会经过Hystrix代理。

@Service(version = "1.0.0")
public class HelloServiceImpl implements HelloService {
    @HystrixCommand(commandProperties = {
                    @HystrixProperty(name = "circuitBreaker.requestVolumeThreshold", value = "10"),
                    @HystrixProperty(name = "execution.isolation.thread.timeoutInMilliseconds", value = "2000") })
    @Override
    public String sayHello(String name) {
        // System.out.println("async provider received: " + name);
        // return "annotation: hello, " + name;
        throw new RuntimeException("Exception to show hystrix enabled.");
    }
}

配置Consumer端

对于Consumer端,则可以增加一层method调用,并在method上配置@HystrixCommand。当调用出错时,会走到fallbackMethod = "reliable"的调用里。

    @Reference(version = "1.0.0")
    private HelloService demoService;

    @HystrixCommand(fallbackMethod = "reliable")
    public String doSayHello(String name) {
        return demoService.sayHello(name);
    }
    public String reliable(String name) {
        return "hystrix fallback value";
    }

通过上面的配置,很简单地就完成了Spring Boot里Dubbo + Hystrix的集成。

传统Spring Annotation应用

Demo地址

传统spring annotation应用的配置其实也很简单,和spring boot应用不同的是:

  1. 显式配置Spring AOP支持:@EnableAspectJAutoProxy
  2. 显式通过@Configuration配置HystrixCommandAspect Bean。
    @Configuration
    @EnableDubbo(scanBasePackages = "com.alibaba.dubbo.samples.annotation.action")
    @PropertySource("classpath:/spring/dubbo-consumer.properties")
    @ComponentScan(value = {"com.alibaba.dubbo.samples.annotation.action"})
    @EnableAspectJAutoProxy
    static public class ConsumerConfiguration {

        @Bean
        public HystrixCommandAspect hystrixCommandAspect() {
            return new HystrixCommandAspect();
        }
    }

 

Hystrix集成Spring AOP原理

在上面的例子里可以看到,Hystrix对Spring的集成是通过Spring AOP来实现的。下面简单分析下实现。

@Aspect
public class HystrixCommandAspect {
    @Pointcut("@annotation(com.netflix.hystrix.contrib.javanica.annotation.HystrixCommand)")
    public void hystrixCommandAnnotationPointcut() {
    }
    @Pointcut("@annotation(com.netflix.hystrix.contrib.javanica.annotation.HystrixCollapser)")
    public void hystrixCollapserAnnotationPointcut() {
    }

    @Around("hystrixCommandAnnotationPointcut() || hystrixCollapserAnnotationPointcut()")
    public Object methodsAnnotatedWithHystrixCommand(final ProceedingJoinPoint joinPoint) throws Throwable {
        Method method = getMethodFromTarget(joinPoint);
        Validate.notNull(method, "failed to get method from joinPoint: %s", joinPoint);
        if (method.isAnnotationPresent(HystrixCommand.class) && method.isAnnotationPresent(HystrixCollapser.class)) {
            throw new IllegalStateException("method cannot be annotated with HystrixCommand and HystrixCollapser " +
                    "annotations at the same time");
        }
        MetaHolderFactory metaHolderFactory = META_HOLDER_FACTORY_MAP.get(HystrixPointcutType.of(method));
        MetaHolder metaHolder = metaHolderFactory.create(joinPoint);
        HystrixInvokable invokable = HystrixCommandFactory.getInstance().create(metaHolder);
        ExecutionType executionType = metaHolder.isCollapserAnnotationPresent() ?
                metaHolder.getCollapserExecutionType() : metaHolder.getExecutionType();

        Object result;
        try {
            if (!metaHolder.isObservable()) {
                result = CommandExecutor.execute(invokable, executionType, metaHolder);
            } else {
                result = executeObservable(invokable, executionType, metaHolder);
            }
        } catch (HystrixBadRequestException e) {
            throw e.getCause() != null ? e.getCause() : e;
        } catch (HystrixRuntimeException e) {
            throw hystrixRuntimeExceptionToThrowable(metaHolder, e);
        }
        return result;
    }
  1. HystrixCommandAspect里定义了两个注解的AspectJ Pointcut:@HystrixCommand@HystrixCollapser。所有带这两个注解的spring bean都会经过AOP处理
  2. @Around AOP处理函数里,可以看到Hystrix会创建出HystrixInvokable,再通过CommandExecutor来执行

spring-cloud-starter-netflix-hystrix的代码分析

  1. @EnableHystrix 引入了@EnableCircuitBreaker@EnableCircuitBreaker引入了EnableCircuitBreakerImportSelector
    @EnableCircuitBreaker
    public @interface EnableHystrix {
    }
    
    @Import(EnableCircuitBreakerImportSelector.class)
    public @interface EnableCircuitBreaker {
    }
  2. EnableCircuitBreakerImportSelector继承了SpringFactoryImportSelector<EnableCircuitBreaker>,使spring加载META-INF/spring.factories里的EnableCircuitBreaker声明的配置在META-INF/spring.factories里可以找到下面的配置,也就是引入了HystrixCircuitBreakerConfiguration
    org.springframework.cloud.client.circuitbreaker.EnableCircuitBreaker=\
    org.springframework.cloud.netflix.hystrix.HystrixCircuitBreakerConfiguration
  3. HystrixCircuitBreakerConfiguration里可以发现创建了HystrixCommandAspect
    @Configuration
    public class HystrixCircuitBreakerConfiguration {
    
        @Bean
        public HystrixCommandAspect hystrixCommandAspect() {
            return new HystrixCommandAspect();
        }

可见spring-cloud-starter-netflix-hystrix实际上也是创建了HystrixCommandAspect来集成Hystrix。

另外spring-cloud-starter-netflix-hystrix里还有metrics, health, dashboard等集成。

总结

  • 对于dubbo provider的@Service是一个spring bean,直接在上面配置@HystrixCommand即可
  • 对于dubbo consumer的@Reference,可以通过加一层简单的spring method包装,配置@HystrixCommand即可
  • Hystrix本身提供HystrixCommandAspect来集成Spring AOP,配置了@HystrixCommand@HystrixCollapser的spring method都会被Hystrix处理

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