Spring MVC 异常处理详解

Spring MVC中异常处理的类体系结构

下图中,我画出了Spring MVC中,跟异常处理相关的主要类和接口。

在Spring MVC中,所有用于处理在请求映射和请求处理过程中抛出的异常的类,都要实现HandlerExceptionResolver接口。AbstractHandlerExceptionResolver实现该接口和Orderd接口,是HandlerExceptionResolver类的实现的基类。ResponseStatusExceptionResolver等具体的异常处理类均在AbstractHandlerExceptionResolver之上,实现了具体的异常处理方式。一个基于Spring MVC的Web应用程序中,可以存在多个实现了HandlerExceptionResolver的异常处理类,他们的执行顺序,由其order属性决定, order值越小,越是优先执行, 在执行到第一个返回不是null的ModelAndView的Resolver时,不再执行后续的尚未执行的Resolver的异常处理方法。。

下面我逐个介绍一下SpringMVC提供的这些异常处理类的功能。

DefaultHandlerExceptionResolver

HandlerExceptionResolver接口的默认实现,基本上是Spring MVC内部使用,用来处理Spring定义的各种标准异常,将其转化为相对应的HTTP Status Code。其处理的异常类型有:

handleNoSuchRequestHandlingMethod
handleHttpRequestMethodNotSupported
handleHttpMediaTypeNotSupported
handleMissingServletRequestParameter
handleServletRequestBindingException
handleTypeMismatch
handleHttpMessageNotReadable
handleHttpMessageNotWritable
handleMethodArgumentNotValidException
handleMissingServletRequestParameter
handleMissingServletRequestPartException
handleBindException

ResponseStatusExceptionResolver

用来支持ResponseStatus的使用,处理使用了ResponseStatus注解的异常,根据注解的内容,返回相应的HTTP Status Code和内容给客户端。如果Web应用程序中配置了ResponseStatusExceptionResolver,那么我们就可以使用ResponseStatus注解来注解我们自己编写的异常类,并在Controller中抛出该异常类,之后ResponseStatusExceptionResolver就会自动帮我们处理剩下的工作。

这是一个自己编写的异常,用来表示订单不存在:

 @ResponseStatus(value=HttpStatus.NOT_FOUND, reason="No such Order")  // 404
    public class OrderNotFoundException extends RuntimeException {
        // ...
    }

这是一个使用该异常的Controller方法:

@RequestMapping(value="/orders/{id}", method=GET)
    public String showOrder(@PathVariable("id") long id, Model model) {
        Order order = orderRepository.findOrderById(id);
        if (order == null) throw new OrderNotFoundException(id);
        model.addAttribute(order);
        return "orderDetail";
    }

这样,当OrderNotFoundException被抛出时,ResponseStatusExceptionResolver会返回给客户端一个HTTP Status Code为404的响应。

AnnotationMethodHandlerExceptionResolver和ExceptionHandlerExceptionResolver

用来支持ExceptionHandler注解,使用被ExceptionHandler注解所标记的方法来处理异常。其中AnnotationMethodHandlerExceptionResolver在3.0版本中开始提供,ExceptionHandlerExceptionResolver在3.1版本中开始提供,从3.2版本开始,Spring推荐使用ExceptionHandlerExceptionResolver。

如果配置了AnnotationMethodHandlerExceptionResolver和ExceptionHandlerExceptionResolver这两个异常处理bean之一,那么我们就可以使用ExceptionHandler注解来处理异常。

下面是几个ExceptionHandler注解的使用例子:

@Controller
public class ExceptionHandlingController {

  // @RequestHandler methods
  ...
  
  // 以下是异常处理方法
  
  // 将DataIntegrityViolationException转化为Http Status Code为409的响应
  @ResponseStatus(value=HttpStatus.CONFLICT, reason="Data integrity violation")  // 409
  @ExceptionHandler(DataIntegrityViolationException.class)
  public void conflict() {
    // Nothing to do
  }
  
  // 针对SQLException和DataAccessException返回视图databaseError
  @ExceptionHandler({SQLException.class,DataAccessException.class})
  public String databaseError() {
    // Nothing to do.  Returns the logical view name of an error page, passed to
    // the view-resolver(s) in usual way.
    // Note that the exception is _not_ available to this view (it is not added to
    // the model) but see "Extending ExceptionHandlerExceptionResolver" below.
    return "databaseError";
  }

  // 创建ModleAndView,将异常和请求的信息放入到Model中,指定视图名字,并返回该ModleAndView
  @ExceptionHandler(Exception.class)
  public ModelAndView handleError(HttpServletRequest req, Exception exception) {
    logger.error("Request: " + req.getRequestURL() + " raised " + exception);

    ModelAndView mav = new ModelAndView();
    mav.addObject("exception", exception);
    mav.addObject("url", req.getRequestURL());
    mav.setViewName("error");
    return mav;
  }
}

需要注意的是,上面例子中的ExceptionHandler方法的作用域,只是在本Controller类中。如果需要使用ExceptionHandler来处理全局的Exception,则需要使用ControllerAdvice注解。

@ControllerAdvice
class GlobalDefaultExceptionHandler {
    public static final String DEFAULT_ERROR_VIEW = "error";

    @ExceptionHandler(value = Exception.class)
    public ModelAndView defaultErrorHandler(HttpServletRequest req, Exception e) throws Exception {
        // 如果异常使用了ResponseStatus注解,那么重新抛出该异常,Spring框架会处理该异常。 
        if (AnnotationUtils.findAnnotation(e.getClass(), ResponseStatus.class) != null)
            throw e;

        // 否则创建ModleAndView,处理该异常。
        ModelAndView mav = new ModelAndView();
        mav.addObject("exception", e);
        mav.addObject("url", req.getRequestURL());
        mav.setViewName(DEFAULT_ERROR_VIEW);
        return mav;
    }
}

SimpleMappingExceptionResolver

提供了将异常映射为视图的能力,高度可定制化。其提供的能力有:

  1. 根据异常的类型,将异常映射到视图;
  2. 可以为不符合处理条件没有被处理的异常,指定一个默认的错误返回;
  3. 处理异常时,记录log信息;
  4. 指定需要添加到Modle中的Exception属性,从而在视图中展示该属性。
@Configuration
@EnableWebMvc 
public class MvcConfiguration extends WebMvcConfigurerAdapter {
    @Bean(name="simpleMappingExceptionResolver")
    public SimpleMappingExceptionResolver createSimpleMappingExceptionResolver() {
        SimpleMappingExceptionResolver r = new SimpleMappingExceptionResolver();

        Properties mappings = new Properties();
        mappings.setProperty("DatabaseException", "databaseError");
        mappings.setProperty("InvalidCreditCardException", "creditCardError");

        r.setExceptionMappings(mappings);  // 默认为空
        r.setDefaultErrorView("error");    // 默认没有
        r.setExceptionAttribute("ex"); 
        r.setWarnLogCategory("example.MvcLogger"); 
        return r;
    }
    ...
}

自定义ExceptionResolver

Spring MVC的异常处理非常的灵活,如果提供的ExceptionResolver类不能满足使用,我们可以实现自己的异常处理类。可以通过继承SimpleMappingExceptionResolver来定制Mapping的方式和能力,也可以直接继承AbstractHandlerExceptionResolver来实现其它类型的异常处理类。

Spring MVC是如何创建和使用这些Resolver的?

首先看Spring MVC是怎么加载异常处理bean的。

  1. Spring MVC有两种加载异常处理类的方式,一种是根据类型,这种情况下,会加载ApplicationContext下所有实现了ExceptionResolver接口的bean,并根据其order属性排序,依次调用;一种是根据名字,这种情况下会加载ApplicationContext下,名字为handlerExceptionResolver的bean。
  2. 不管使用那种加载方式,如果在ApplicationContext中没有找到异常处理bean,那么Spring MVC会加载默认的异常处理bean。
  3. 默认的异常处理bean定义在DispatcherServlet.properties中。
org.springframework.web.servlet.HandlerExceptionResolver=org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.annotation.AnnotationMethodHandlerExceptionResolver,\
    org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.annotation.ResponseStatusExceptionResolver,\
    org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.support.DefaultHandlerExceptionResolver

以下代码摘自ispatcherServlet,描述了异常处理类的加载过程:

/**
 * Initialize the HandlerMappings used by this class.
 * <p>If no HandlerMapping beans are defined in the BeanFactory for this namespace,
 * we default to BeanNameUrlHandlerMapping.
 */
private void initHandlerMappings(ApplicationContext context) {
    this.handlerMappings = null;

    if (this.detectAllHandlerMappings) {
        // Find all HandlerMappings in the ApplicationContext, including ancestor contexts.
        Map<String, HandlerMapping> matchingBeans =
                BeanFactoryUtils.beansOfTypeIncludingAncestors(context, HandlerMapping.class, true, false);
        if (!matchingBeans.isEmpty()) {
            this.handlerMappings = new ArrayList<HandlerMapping>(matchingBeans.values());
            // We keep HandlerMappings in sorted order.
            OrderComparator.sort(this.handlerMappings);
        }
    }
    else {
        try {
            HandlerMapping hm = context.getBean(HANDLER_MAPPING_BEAN_NAME, HandlerMapping.class);
            this.handlerMappings = Collections.singletonList(hm);
        }
        catch (NoSuchBeanDefinitionException ex) {
            // Ignore, we'll add a default HandlerMapping later.
        }
    }

    // Ensure we have at least one HandlerMapping, by registering
    // a default HandlerMapping if no other mappings are found.
    if (this.handlerMappings == null) {
        this.handlerMappings = getDefaultStrategies(context, HandlerMapping.class);
        if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
            logger.debug("No HandlerMappings found in servlet '" + getServletName() + "': using default");
        }
    }
}

然后看Spring MVC是怎么使用异常处理bean的。

  1. Spring MVC把请求映射和处理过程放到try catch中,捕获到异常后,使用异常处理bean进行处理。
  2. 所有异常处理bean按照order属性排序,在处理过程中,遇到第一个成功处理异常的异常处理bean之后,不再调用后续的异常处理bean。

以下代码摘自DispatcherServlet,描述了处理异常的过程。

/**
 * Process the actual dispatching to the handler.
 * <p>The handler will be obtained by applying the servlet's HandlerMappings in order.
 * The HandlerAdapter will be obtained by querying the servlet's installed HandlerAdapters
 * to find the first that supports the handler class.
 * <p>All HTTP methods are handled by this method. It's up to HandlerAdapters or handlers
 * themselves to decide which methods are acceptable.
 * @param request current HTTP request
 * @param response current HTTP response
 * @throws Exception in case of any kind of processing failure
 */
protected void doDispatch(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws Exception {
    HttpServletRequest processedRequest = request;
    HandlerExecutionChain mappedHandler = null;
    boolean multipartRequestParsed = false;

    WebAsyncManager asyncManager = WebAsyncUtils.getAsyncManager(request);

    try {
        ModelAndView mv = null;
        Exception dispatchException = null;

        try {
            processedRequest = checkMultipart(request);
            multipartRequestParsed = (processedRequest != request);

            // Determine handler for the current request.
            mappedHandler = getHandler(processedRequest);
            if (mappedHandler == null || mappedHandler.getHandler() == null) {
                noHandlerFound(processedRequest, response);
                return;
            }

            // Determine handler adapter for the current request.
            HandlerAdapter ha = getHandlerAdapter(mappedHandler.getHandler());

            // Process last-modified header, if supported by the handler.
            String method = request.getMethod();
            boolean isGet = "GET".equals(method);
            if (isGet || "HEAD".equals(method)) {
                long lastModified = ha.getLastModified(request, mappedHandler.getHandler());
                if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                    logger.debug("Last-Modified value for [" + getRequestUri(request) + "] is: " + lastModified);
                }
                if (new ServletWebRequest(request, response).checkNotModified(lastModified) && isGet) {
                    return;
                }
            }

            if (!mappedHandler.applyPreHandle(processedRequest, response)) {
                return;
            }

            // Actually invoke the handler.
            mv = ha.handle(processedRequest, response, mappedHandler.getHandler());

            if (asyncManager.isConcurrentHandlingStarted()) {
                return;
            }

            applyDefaultViewName(request, mv);
            mappedHandler.applyPostHandle(processedRequest, response, mv);
        }
        catch (Exception ex) {
            dispatchException = ex;
        }
        processDispatchResult(processedRequest, response, mappedHandler, mv, dispatchException);
    }
    catch (Exception ex) {
        triggerAfterCompletion(processedRequest, response, mappedHandler, ex);
    }
    catch (Error err) {
        triggerAfterCompletionWithError(processedRequest, response, mappedHandler, err);
    }
    finally {
        if (asyncManager.isConcurrentHandlingStarted()) {
            // Instead of postHandle and afterCompletion
            if (mappedHandler != null) {
                mappedHandler.applyAfterConcurrentHandlingStarted(processedRequest, response);
            }
        }
        else {
            // Clean up any resources used by a multipart request.
            if (multipartRequestParsed) {
                cleanupMultipart(processedRequest);
            }
        }
    }
}


/**
 * Determine an error ModelAndView via the registered HandlerExceptionResolvers.
 * @param request current HTTP request
 * @param response current HTTP response
 * @param handler the executed handler, or {@code null} if none chosen at the time of the exception
 * (for example, if multipart resolution failed)
 * @param ex the exception that got thrown during handler execution
 * @return a corresponding ModelAndView to forward to
 * @throws Exception if no error ModelAndView found
 */
protected ModelAndView processHandlerException(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response,
        Object handler, Exception ex) throws Exception {

    // Check registered HandlerExceptionResolvers...
    ModelAndView exMv = null;
    for (HandlerExceptionResolver handlerExceptionResolver : this.handlerExceptionResolvers) {
        exMv = handlerExceptionResolver.resolveException(request, response, handler, ex);
        if (exMv != null) {
            break;
        }
    }
    if (exMv != null) {
        if (exMv.isEmpty()) {
            request.setAttribute(EXCEPTION_ATTRIBUTE, ex);
            return null;
        }
        // We might still need view name translation for a plain error model...
        if (!exMv.hasView()) {
            exMv.setViewName(getDefaultViewName(request));
        }
        if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
            logger.debug("Handler execution resulted in exception - forwarding to resolved error view: " + exMv, ex);
        }
        WebUtils.exposeErrorRequestAttributes(request, ex, getServletName());
        return exMv;
    }

    throw ex;
}

何时该使用何种ExceptionResolver?

Spring提供了很多选择和非常灵活的使用方式,下面是一些使用建议:

  1. 如果自定义异常类,考虑加上ResponseStatus注解;
  2. 对于没有ResponseStatus注解的异常,可以通过使用ExceptionHandler+ControllerAdvice注解,或者通过配置SimpleMappingExceptionResolver,来为整个Web应用提供统一的异常处理。
  3. 如果应用中有些异常处理方式,只针对特定的Controller使用,那么在这个Controller中使用ExceptionHandler注解。
  4. 不要使用过多的异常处理方式,不然的话,维护起来会很苦恼,因为异常的处理分散在很多不同的地方。


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