用 Docker、Gradle 来构建、运行、发布一个 Spring Boot 应用

本文演示了如何用 Docker、Gradle 来构建、运行、发布来一个 Spring Boot 应用。

Docker 简介

Docker 是一个 Linux 容器管理工具包,具备“社交”方面,允许用户发布容器的 image (镜像),并使用别人发布的 image。Docker image 是用于运行容器化进程的方案,在本文中,我们将构建一个简单的 Spring Boot 应用程序。

有关 Docker 的详细介绍,可以移步至 《简述 Docker》。

前置条件

  • JDK 1.8+
  • Gradle 2.3+
  • Docker 最新版。有关 Docker 在的安装,可以参阅 《Docker 在 CentOS 下的安装、使用》。 如果你的电脑不是 Linux 系统,最好装个虚拟机,在虚拟机里面装个 Linux ,因为 Docker 的依赖 Linux。

用 Gradle 构建项目

创建目录结构

项目的目录结构因符合 Gradle 的约定。

在 *nix 系统下执行 mkdir -p src/main/java/docker_spring_boot ,生产如下结构 :

└── src
    └── main
        └── java
            └── com
                └── waylau
                    └── docker_spring_boot

创建 Gradle 构建文件

build.gradle

buildscript {
    repositories {
        mavenCentral()
    }
    dependencies {
        classpath('org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-gradle-plugin:1.3.3.RELEASE')
// tag::build[]
        classpath('se.transmode.gradle:gradle-docker:1.2')
// end::build[]
    }
}

apply plugin: 'java'
apply plugin: 'eclipse'
apply plugin: 'idea'
apply plugin: 'spring-boot'
// tag::plugin[]
apply plugin: 'docker'
// end::plugin[]

// This is used as the docker image prefix (org)
group = 'gregturn'

jar {
    baseName = 'docker-spring-boot-gradle'
    version =  '1.0.0'
}

// tag::task[]
task buildDocker(type: Docker, dependsOn: build) {
  push = true
  applicationName = jar.baseName
  dockerfile = file('src/main/docker/Dockerfile')
  doFirst {
    copy {
      from jar
      into stageDir
    }
  }
}
// end::task[]

repositories {
    mavenCentral()
}

sourceCompatibility = 1.8
targetCompatibility = 1.8

dependencies {
    compile("org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-web") 
    testCompile("org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-test")
}

task wrapper(type: Wrapper) {
    gradleVersion = '2.3'
}

Spring Boot gradle plugin 提供了很多方便的功能:

它收集的类路径上所有 jar 文件,并构建成一个单一的、可运行的“über-jar”(德语,相关解释可以移步至 http://stackoverflow.com/questions/11947037/what-is-an-uber-jar),这使得它更方便地执行和传输服务。

编写 Spring Boot 应用

编写一个简单的 Spring Boot 应用 :

src/main/java/com/waylau/docker_spring_boot/Application.java:

package com.waylau.docker_spring_boot;

import org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication;
import org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.SpringBootApplication;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;

/**
 * 主应用入口
 * @author <a href="http://waylau.com">waylau.com</a>
 * @date 2016年3月19日
 */
@SpringBootApplication
@RestController
public class Application {

	@RequestMapping("/")
	public String home() {
		return "Hello Docker World."
				+ "<br />Welcome to <a href='http://waylau.com'>waylau.com</a></li>";
	}

	public static void main(String[] args) {
		SpringApplication.run(Application.class, args);
	}

}

解释下上面的代码:

  • 类用 @SpringBootApplication @RestController 标识,可用 Spring MVC 来处理 Web 请求。
  • @RequestMapping 将 / 映射到 home() ,并将”Hello Docker World” 文本作为响应。
  • main() 方法使用 Spring Boot 的 SpringApplication.run() 方法来启动应用。

运行程序

使用 Gradle

编译:

gradle build

运行:

java -jar build/libs/docker-spring-boot-gradle-1.0.0.jar

访问项目

如果程序正确运行,浏览器访问 http://localhost:8080/,可以看到页面 “Hello Docker World.” 字样。

将项目容器化

Docker 使用 Dockerfile 文件格式来指定 image 层,

创建文件 src/main/docker/Dockerfile:

FROM frolvlad/alpine-oraclejdk8:slim
VOLUME /tmp
ADD docker-spring-boot-gradle-1.0.0.jar app.jar
ENTRYPOINT ["java","-Djava.security.egd=file:/dev/./urandom","-jar","/app.jar"]

解释下这个配置文件:

  • VOLUME 指定了临时文件目录为/tmp。其效果是在主机 /var/lib/docker 目录下创建了一个临时文件,并链接到容器的/tmp。改步骤是可选的,如果涉及到文件系统的应用就很有必要了。/tmp目录用来持久化到 Docker 数据文件夹,因为 Spring Boot 使用的内嵌 Tomcat 容器默认使用/tmp作为工作目录
  • 项目的 jar 文件作为 “app.jar” 添加到容器的
  • ENTRYPOINT 执行项目 app.jar。为了缩短 Tomcat 启动时间,添加一个系统属性指向 “/dev/urandom” 作为 Entropy Source

构建 Docker Image

执行构建成为 docker image:

gradle build buildDocker

运行

运行 Docker Image

docker run -p 8080:8080 -t waylau/docker-spring-boot-gradle
[root@waylau spring-boot]# docker run -p 8080:8080 -t waylau/docker-spring-boot-gradle

  .   ____          _            __ _ _
 /\\ / ___'_ __ _ _(_)_ __  __ _ \ \ \ \
( ( )\___ | '_ | '_| | '_ \/ _` | \ \ \ \
 \\/  ___)| |_)| | | | | || (_| |  ) ) ) )
  '  |____| .__|_| |_|_| |_\__, | / / / /
 =========|_|==============|___/=/_/_/_/
 :: Spring Boot ::        (v1.3.3.RELEASE)

2016-03-20 08:45:51.276  INFO 1 --- [           main] c.waylau.docker_spring_boot.Application  : Starting Application v1.0.0 on 048fb623038f with PID 1 (/app.jar started by root in /)
2016-03-20 08:45:51.289  INFO 1 --- [           main] c.waylau.docker_spring_boot.Application  : No active profile set, falling back to default profiles: default
2016-03-20 08:45:51.722  INFO 1 --- [           main] ationConfigEmbeddedWebApplicationContext : Refreshing org.springframework.boot.context.embedded.AnnotationConfigEmbeddedWebApplicationContext@669af5fc: startup date [Sun Mar 20 08:45:51 GMT 2016]; root of context hierarchy
2016-03-20 08:45:54.874  INFO 1 --- [           main] o.s.b.f.s.DefaultListableBeanFactory     : Overriding bean definition for bean 'beanNameViewResolver' with a different definition: replacing [Root bean: class [null]; scope=; abstract=false; lazyInit=false; autowireMode=3; dependencyCheck=0; autowireCandidate=true; primary=false; factoryBeanName=org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.ErrorMvcAutoConfiguration$WhitelabelErrorViewConfiguration; factoryMethodName=beanNameViewResolver; initMethodName=null; destroyMethodName=(inferred); defined in class path resource [org/springframework/boot/autoconfigure/web/ErrorMvcAutoConfiguration$WhitelabelErrorViewConfiguration.class]] with [Root bean: class [null]; scope=; abstract=false; lazyInit=false; autowireMode=3; dependencyCheck=0; autowireCandidate=true; primary=false; factoryBeanName=org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.WebMvcAutoConfiguration$WebMvcAutoConfigurationAdapter; factoryMethodName=beanNameViewResolver; initMethodName=null; destroyMethodName=(inferred); defined in class path resource [org/springframework/boot/autoconfigure/web/WebMvcAutoConfiguration$WebMvcAutoConfigurationAdapter.class]]
2016-03-20 08:45:57.893  INFO 1 --- [           main] s.b.c.e.t.TomcatEmbeddedServletContainer : Tomcat initialized with port(s): 8080 (http)
2016-03-20 08:45:57.982  INFO 1 --- [           main] o.apache.catalina.core.StandardService   : Starting service Tomcat
2016-03-20 08:45:57.984  INFO 1 --- [           main] org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngine  : Starting Servlet Engine: Apache Tomcat/8.0.32
2016-03-20 08:45:58.473  INFO 1 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.a.c.c.C.[Tomcat].[localhost].[/]       : Initializing Spring embedded WebApplicationContext
2016-03-20 08:45:58.473  INFO 1 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.web.context.ContextLoader            : Root WebApplicationContext: initialization completed in 6877 ms
2016-03-20 08:45:59.672  INFO 1 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.b.c.e.ServletRegistrationBean        : Mapping servlet: 'dispatcherServlet' to [/]
2016-03-20 08:45:59.695  INFO 1 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.b.c.embedded.FilterRegistrationBean  : Mapping filter: 'characterEncodingFilter' to: [/*]
2016-03-20 08:45:59.701  INFO 1 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.b.c.embedded.FilterRegistrationBean  : Mapping filter: 'hiddenHttpMethodFilter' to: [/*]
2016-03-20 08:45:59.703  INFO 1 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.b.c.embedded.FilterRegistrationBean  : Mapping filter: 'httpPutFormContentFilter' to: [/*]
2016-03-20 08:45:59.703  INFO 1 --- [ost-startStop-1] o.s.b.c.embedded.FilterRegistrationBean  : Mapping filter: 'requestContextFilter' to: [/*]
2016-03-20 08:46:00.862  INFO 1 --- [           main] s.w.s.m.m.a.RequestMappingHandlerAdapter : Looking for @ControllerAdvice: org.springframework.boot.context.embedded.AnnotationConfigEmbeddedWebApplicationContext@669af5fc: startup date [Sun Mar 20 08:45:51 GMT 2016]; root of context hierarchy
2016-03-20 08:46:01.166  INFO 1 --- [           main] s.w.s.m.m.a.RequestMappingHandlerMapping : Mapped "{[/]}" onto public java.lang.String com.waylau.docker_spring_boot.Application.home()
2016-03-20 08:46:01.189  INFO 1 --- [           main] s.w.s.m.m.a.RequestMappingHandlerMapping : Mapped "{[/error],produces=[text/html]}" onto public org.springframework.web.servlet.ModelAndView org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.BasicErrorController.errorHtml(javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest,javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse)
2016-03-20 08:46:01.190  INFO 1 --- [           main] s.w.s.m.m.a.RequestMappingHandlerMapping : Mapped "{[/error]}" onto public org.springframework.http.ResponseEntity<java.util.Map<java.lang.String, java.lang.Object>> org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web.BasicErrorController.error(javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest)
2016-03-20 08:46:01.302  INFO 1 --- [           main] o.s.w.s.handler.SimpleUrlHandlerMapping  : Mapped URL path [/webjars/**] onto handler of type [class org.springframework.web.servlet.resource.ResourceHttpRequestHandler]
2016-03-20 08:46:01.302  INFO 1 --- [           main] o.s.w.s.handler.SimpleUrlHandlerMapping  : Mapped URL path [/**] onto handler of type [class org.springframework.web.servlet.resource.ResourceHttpRequestHandler]
2016-03-20 08:46:01.438  INFO 1 --- [           main] o.s.w.s.handler.SimpleUrlHandlerMapping  : Mapped URL path [/**/favicon.ico] onto handler of type [class org.springframework.web.servlet.resource.ResourceHttpRequestHandler]
2016-03-20 08:46:01.833  INFO 1 --- [           main] o.s.j.e.a.AnnotationMBeanExporter        : Registering beans for JMX exposure on startup
2016-03-20 08:46:02.332  INFO 1 --- [           main] s.b.c.e.t.TomcatEmbeddedServletContainer : Tomcat started on port(s): 8080 (http)
2016-03-20 08:46:02.343  INFO 1 --- [           main] c.waylau.docker_spring_boot.Application  : Started Application in 13.194 seconds (JVM running for 15.828)

访问项目

如果程序正确运行,浏览器访问 http://localhost:8080/,可以看到页面 “Hello Docker World.” 字样。

推送 image 到 Docker Hub

首先,你在 Docker Hub 要有注册账号,且创建了相应的库;

其次,docker 推送前,先要登录,否则报unauthorized: access to the requested resource is not authorized的错误

执行:

docker login

输出为:

[root@waylau spring-boot]# docker login
Username: waylau
Password: 
Email: waylau521@gmail.com
WARNING: login credentials saved in /root/.docker/config.json
Login Succeeded

执行推送

docker push waylau/docker-spring-boot-gradle
[root@waylau spring-boot]# docker push waylau/docker-spring-boot-gradle
The push refers to a repository [docker.io/waylau/docker-spring-boot-gradle]
751d29eef02e: Layer already exists 
4da3741f39c7: Pushed 
5f70bf18a086: Layer already exists 
7e4d0cb13643: Layer already exists 
8f045733649f: Layer already exists 
latest: digest: sha256:eb4d5308ba1bb27489d808279e74784bda6761b3574f4298d746abba59b35164 size: 9415

镜像加速器

Docker Hub 在国外,有时候拉取 Image 极其缓慢,可以使用国内的镜像来实现加速

阿里云

echo "DOCKER_OPTS=\"--registry-mirror=https://yourlocation.mirror.aliyuncs.com\"" | sudo tee -a /etc/default/docker
sudo service docker restart

其中 https://yourlocation.mirror.aliyuncs.com 是您在阿里云注册后的专属加速器地址:

DaoCloud

sudo echo “DOCKER_OPTS=\”\$DOCKER_OPTS –registry-mirror=http://your-id.m.daocloud.io -d\”” >> /etc/default/docker
sudo service docker restart

其中 http://your-id.m.daocloud.io 是您在 DaoCloud 注册后的专属加速器地址:

源码

获取项目源码, https://github.com/waylau/docker-demos 中的 samples/spring-boot-gradle

获取项目镜像, 执行

docker pull waylau/docker-spring-boot-gradle

参考引用

  • http://spring.io/guides/gs/spring-boot-docker/
  • https://hub.docker.com/r/waylau/docker-spring-boot-gradle/


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