Spring源码分析:非懒加载的单例Bean初始化过程(上)

代码入口

上文【Spring源码分析】Bean加载流程概览,比较详细地分析了Spring上下文加载的代码入口,并且在AbstractApplicationContext的refresh方法中,点出了finishBeanFactoryInitialization方法完成了对于所有非懒加载的Bean的初始化。

finishBeanFactoryInitialization方法中调用了DefaultListableBeanFactory的preInstantiateSingletons方法,本文针对preInstantiateSingletons进行分析,解读一下Spring是如何初始化Bean实例对象出来的。

DefaultListableBeanFactory的preInstantiateSingletons方法

DefaultListableBeanFactory的preInstantiateSingletons方法,顾名思义,初始化所有的单例Bean,看一下方法的定义:

public void preInstantiateSingletons() throws BeansException {
    if (this.logger.isInfoEnabled()) {
        this.logger.info("Pre-instantiating singletons in " + this);
    }
    synchronized (this.beanDefinitionMap) {
        // Iterate over a copy to allow for init methods which in turn register new bean definitions.
        // While this may not be part of the regular factory bootstrap, it does otherwise work fine.
        List<String> beanNames = new ArrayList<String>(this.beanDefinitionNames);
        for (String beanName : beanNames) {
            RootBeanDefinition bd = getMergedLocalBeanDefinition(beanName);
            if (!bd.isAbstract() && bd.isSingleton() && !bd.isLazyInit()) {
                if (isFactoryBean(beanName)) {
                    final FactoryBean factory = (FactoryBean) getBean(FACTORY_BEAN_PREFIX + beanName);
                    boolean isEagerInit;
                    if (System.getSecurityManager() != null && factory instanceof SmartFactoryBean) {
                        isEagerInit = AccessController.doPrivileged(new PrivilegedAction<Boolean>() {
                            public Boolean run() {
                                return ((SmartFactoryBean) factory).isEagerInit();
                            }
                        }, getAccessControlContext());
                    }
                    else {
                        isEagerInit = (factory instanceof SmartFactoryBean &&
                                ((SmartFactoryBean) factory).isEagerInit());
                    }
                    if (isEagerInit) {
                        getBean(beanName);
                    }
                }
                else {
                    getBean(beanName);
                }
            }
        }
    }
}

前面的代码比较简单,根据beanName拿到BeanDefinition(即Bean的定义)。由于此方法实例化的是所有非懒加载的单例Bean,因此要实例化Bean,必须满足11行的三个定义:

(1)不是抽象的

(2)必须是单例的

(3)必须是非懒加载的

接着简单看一下第12行~第29行的代码,这段代码主要做的是一件事情:首先判断一下Bean是否FactoryBean的实现,接着判断Bean是否SmartFactoryBean的实现,假如Bean是SmartFactoryBean的实现并且eagerInit(这个单词字面意思是渴望加载,找不到一个好的词语去翻译,意思就是定义了这个Bean需要立即加载的意思)的话,会立即实例化这个Bean。Java开发人员不需要关注这段代码,因为SmartFactoryBean基本不会用到,我翻译一下Spring官网对于SmartFactoryBean的定义描述:

  • FactoryBean接口的扩展接口。接口实现并不表示是否总是返回单独的实例对象,比如FactoryBean.isSingleton()实现返回false的情况并不清晰地表示每次返回的都是单独的实例对象
  • 不实现这个扩展接口的简单FactoryBean的实现,FactoryBean.isSingleton()实现返回false总是简单地告诉我们每次返回的都是单独的实例对象,暴露出来的对象只能够通过命令访问
  • 注意:这个接口是一个有特殊用途的接口,主要用于框架内部使用与Spring相关。通常,应用提供的FactoryBean接口实现应当只需要实现简单的FactoryBean接口即可,新方法应当加入到扩展接口中去

代码示例

为了后面的代码分析方便,事先我定义一个Bean:

package org.xrq.action;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanClassLoaderAware;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanNameAware;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.InitializingBean;

public class MultiFunctionBean implements InitializingBean, BeanNameAware, BeanClassLoaderAware {

    private int    propertyA;

    private int    propertyB;

    public int getPropertyA() {
        return propertyA;
    }

    public void setPropertyA(int propertyA) {
        this.propertyA = propertyA;
    }

    public int getPropertyB() {
        return propertyB;
    }

    public void setPropertyB(int propertyB) {
        this.propertyB = propertyB;
    }

    public void initMethod() {
        System.out.println("Enter MultiFunctionBean.initMethod()");
    }

    @Override
    public void setBeanClassLoader(ClassLoader classLoader) {
        System.out.println("Enter MultiFunctionBean.setBeanClassLoader(ClassLoader classLoader)");
    }

    @Override
    public void setBeanName(String name) {
        System.out.println("Enter MultiFunctionBean.setBeanName(String name)");
    }

    @Override
    public void afterPropertiesSet() throws Exception {
        System.out.println("Enter MultiFunctionBean.afterPropertiesSet()");
    }

    @Override
    public String toString() {
        return "MultiFunctionBean [propertyA=" + propertyA + ", propertyB=" + propertyB + "]";
    }

}

定义对应的spring.xml:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans

http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans-3.0.xsd">

    <bean id="multiFunctionBean" class="org.xrq.action.MultiFunctionBean" init-method="initMethod" />

</beans>

利用这个MultiFunctionBean,我们可以用来探究Spring加载Bean的多种机制。

doGetBean方法构造Bean流程

上面把getBean之外的代码都分析了一下,看代码就可以知道,获取Bean对象实例,都是通过getBean方法,getBean方法最终调用的是DefaultListableBeanFactory的父类AbstractBeanFactory类的doGetBean方法,因此这部分重点分析一下doGetBean方法是如何构造出一个单例的Bean的。

看一下doGetBean方法的代码实现,比较长:

protected <T> T doGetBean(
        final String name, final Class<T> requiredType, final Object[] args, boolean typeCheckOnly)
        throws BeansException {

    final String beanName = transformedBeanName(name);
    Object bean;

    // Eagerly check singleton cache for manually registered singletons.
    Object sharedInstance = getSingleton(beanName);
    if (sharedInstance != null && args == null) {
        if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
            if (isSingletonCurrentlyInCreation(beanName)) {
                logger.debug("Returning eagerly cached instance of singleton bean '" + beanName +
                        "' that is not fully initialized yet - a consequence of a circular reference");
            }
            else {
                logger.debug("Returning cached instance of singleton bean '" + beanName + "'");
            }
        }
        bean = getObjectForBeanInstance(sharedInstance, name, beanName, null);
    }

    else {
        // Fail if we're already creating this bean instance:
        // We're assumably within a circular reference.
        if (isPrototypeCurrentlyInCreation(beanName)) {
            throw new BeanCurrentlyInCreationException(beanName);
        }

        // Check if bean definition exists in this factory.
        BeanFactory parentBeanFactory = getParentBeanFactory();
        if (parentBeanFactory != null && !containsBeanDefinition(beanName)) {
            // Not found -> check parent.
            String nameToLookup = originalBeanName(name);
            if (args != null) {
                // Delegation to parent with explicit args.
                return (T) parentBeanFactory.getBean(nameToLookup, args);
            }
            else {
                // No args -> delegate to standard getBean method.
                return parentBeanFactory.getBean(nameToLookup, requiredType);
            }
        }

        if (!typeCheckOnly) {
            markBeanAsCreated(beanName);
        }

        final RootBeanDefinition mbd = getMergedLocalBeanDefinition(beanName);
        checkMergedBeanDefinition(mbd, beanName, args);

        // Guarantee initialization of beans that the current bean depends on.
        String[] dependsOn = mbd.getDependsOn();
        if (dependsOn != null) {
            for (String dependsOnBean : dependsOn) {
                getBean(dependsOnBean);
                registerDependentBean(dependsOnBean, beanName);
            }
        }

        // Create bean instance.
        if (mbd.isSingleton()) {
            sharedInstance = getSingleton(beanName, new ObjectFactory() {
                public Object getObject() throws BeansException {
                    try {
                        return createBean(beanName, mbd, args);
                    }
                    catch (BeansException ex) {
                        // Explicitly remove instance from singleton cache: It might have been put there
                        // eagerly by the creation process, to allow for circular reference resolution.
                        // Also remove any beans that received a temporary reference to the bean.
                        destroySingleton(beanName);
                        throw ex;
                    }
                }
            });
            bean = getObjectForBeanInstance(sharedInstance, name, beanName, mbd);
        }

        else if (mbd.isPrototype()) {
            // It's a prototype -> create a new instance.
            Object prototypeInstance = null;
            try {
                beforePrototypeCreation(beanName);
                prototypeInstance = createBean(beanName, mbd, args);
            }
            finally {
                afterPrototypeCreation(beanName);
            }
            bean = getObjectForBeanInstance(prototypeInstance, name, beanName, mbd);
        }

        else {
            String scopeName = mbd.getScope();
            final Scope scope = this.scopes.get(scopeName);
            if (scope == null) {
                throw new IllegalStateException("No Scope registered for scope '" + scopeName + "'");
            }
            try {
                Object scopedInstance = scope.get(beanName, new ObjectFactory() {
                    public Object getObject() throws BeansException {
                            beforePrototypeCreation(beanName);
                        try {
                            return createBean(beanName, mbd, args);
                        }
                        finally {
                            afterPrototypeCreation(beanName);
                        }
                    }
                });
                bean = getObjectForBeanInstance(scopedInstance, name, beanName, mbd);
            }
            catch (IllegalStateException ex) {
                throw new BeanCreationException(beanName,
                        "Scope '" + scopeName + "' is not active for the current thread; " +
                        "consider defining a scoped proxy for this bean if you intend to refer to it from a singleton",
                        ex);
            }
        }
    }

    // Check if required type matches the type of the actual bean instance.
    if (requiredType != null && bean != null && !requiredType.isAssignableFrom(bean.getClass())) {
        try {
            return getTypeConverter().convertIfNecessary(bean, requiredType);
        }
        catch (TypeMismatchException ex) {
            if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                logger.debug("Failed to convert bean '" + name + "' to required type [" +
                        ClassUtils.getQualifiedName(requiredType) + "]", ex);
            }
            throw new BeanNotOfRequiredTypeException(name, requiredType, bean.getClass());
        }
    }
    return (T) bean;
}

首先第9行~第21行的代码,第9行的代码就不进去看了,简单说一下:首先检查一下本地的单例缓存是否已经加载过Bean,没有的话再检查earlySingleton缓存是否已经加载过Bean(又是early,不好找到词语翻译),没有的话执行后面的逻辑。

接着第26行~第50行,这里执行的都是一些基本的检查和简单的操作,包括bean是否是prototype的(prototype的Bean当前创建会抛出异常)、是否抽象的、将beanName加入alreadyCreated这个Set中等。

接着第53行~第59行,我们经常在bean标签中看到depends-on这个属性,就是通过这段保证了depends-on依赖的Bean会优先于当前Bean被加载

接着第62行~第78行、第80行~第91行、第93行~第120行有三个判断,显然上面的MultiFunctionBean是一个单例的Bean也是本文探究的重点,因此执行第62行~第78行的逻辑。getSingleton方法不贴了,有一些前置的判断,很简单的逻辑,重点就是调用了ObjectFactory的getObject()方法来获取到单例Bean对象,方法的实现是调用了createBean方法,createBean方法是AbstractBeanFactory的子类AbstractAutowireCapableBeanFactory的一个方法,看一下它的方法实现:

protected Object createBean(final String beanName, final RootBeanDefinition mbd, final Object[] args)
        throws BeanCreationException {

    if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
        logger.debug("Creating instance of bean '" + beanName + "'");
    }
    // Make sure bean class is actually resolved at this point.
    resolveBeanClass(mbd, beanName);

    // Prepare method overrides.
    try {
        mbd.prepareMethodOverrides();
    }
    catch (BeanDefinitionValidationException ex) {
        throw new BeanDefinitionStoreException(mbd.getResourceDescription(),
                beanName, "Validation of method overrides failed", ex);
    }

    try {
        // Give BeanPostProcessors a chance to return a proxy instead of the target bean instance.
        Object bean = resolveBeforeInstantiation(beanName, mbd);
        if (bean != null) {
            return bean;
        }
    }
    catch (Throwable ex) {
        throw new BeanCreationException(mbd.getResourceDescription(), beanName,
                "BeanPostProcessor before instantiation of bean failed", ex);
    }

    Object beanInstance = doCreateBean(beanName, mbd, args);
    if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
        logger.debug("Finished creating instance of bean '" + beanName + "'");
    }
    return beanInstance;
}

前面的代码都没什么意义,代码执行到第31行:

protected Object doCreateBean(final String beanName, final RootBeanDefinition mbd, final Object[] args) {
    // Instantiate the bean.
    BeanWrapper instanceWrapper = null;
    if (mbd.isSingleton()) {
        instanceWrapper = this.factoryBeanInstanceCache.remove(beanName);
    }
    if (instanceWrapper == null) {
        instanceWrapper = createBeanInstance(beanName, mbd, args);
    }
    final Object bean = (instanceWrapper != null ? instanceWrapper.getWrappedInstance() : null);
    Class beanType = (instanceWrapper != null ? instanceWrapper.getWrappedClass() : null);

    // Allow post-processors to modify the merged bean definition.
    synchronized (mbd.postProcessingLock) {
        if (!mbd.postProcessed) {
            applyMergedBeanDefinitionPostProcessors(mbd, beanType, beanName);
            mbd.postProcessed = true;
        }
    }

    // Eagerly cache singletons to be able to resolve circular references
    // even when triggered by lifecycle interfaces like BeanFactoryAware.
    boolean earlySingletonExposure = (mbd.isSingleton() && this.allowCircularReferences &&
            isSingletonCurrentlyInCreation(beanName));
    if (earlySingletonExposure) {
        if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
            logger.debug("Eagerly caching bean '" + beanName +
                    "' to allow for resolving potential circular references");
        }
        addSingletonFactory(beanName, new ObjectFactory() {
            public Object getObject() throws BeansException {
                return getEarlyBeanReference(beanName, mbd, bean);
            }
        });
    }

    // Initialize the bean instance.
    Object exposedObject = bean;
    try {
        populateBean(beanName, mbd, instanceWrapper);
        if (exposedObject != null) {
            exposedObject = initializeBean(beanName, exposedObject, mbd);
        }
    }
    catch (Throwable ex) {
        if (ex instanceof BeanCreationException && beanName.equals(((BeanCreationException) ex).getBeanName())) {
            throw (BeanCreationException) ex;
        }
        else {
            throw new BeanCreationException(mbd.getResourceDescription(), beanName, "Initialization of bean failed", ex);
        }
    }

    if (earlySingletonExposure) {
        Object earlySingletonReference = getSingleton(beanName, false);
        if (earlySingletonReference != null) {
            if (exposedObject == bean) {
                exposedObject = earlySingletonReference;
            }
            else if (!this.allowRawInjectionDespiteWrapping && hasDependentBean(beanName)) {
                String[] dependentBeans = getDependentBeans(beanName);
                Set<String> actualDependentBeans = new LinkedHashSet<String>(dependentBeans.length);
                for (String dependentBean : dependentBeans) {
                    if (!removeSingletonIfCreatedForTypeCheckOnly(dependentBean)) {
                        actualDependentBeans.add(dependentBean);
                    }
                }
                if (!actualDependentBeans.isEmpty()) {
                    throw new BeanCurrentlyInCreationException(beanName,
                            "Bean with name '" + beanName + "' has been injected into other beans [" +
                                StringUtils.collectionToCommaDelimitedString(actualDependentBeans) +
                            "] in its raw version as part of a circular reference, but has eventually been " +
                            "wrapped. This means that said other beans do not use the final version of the " +
                            "bean. This is often the result of over-eager type matching - consider using " +
                            "'getBeanNamesOfType' with the 'allowEagerInit' flag turned off, for example.");
                }
            }
        }
    }

    // Register bean as disposable.
    try {
        registerDisposableBeanIfNecessary(beanName, bean, mbd);
    }
    catch (BeanDefinitionValidationException ex) {
        throw new BeanCreationException(mbd.getResourceDescription(), beanName, "Invalid destruction signature", ex);
    }

    return exposedObject;
}

代码跟踪到这里,已经到了主流程,接下来分段分析doCreateBean方法的代码。

创建Bean实例

第8行的createBeanInstance方法,会创建出Bean的实例,并包装为BeanWrapper,看一下createBeanInstance方法,只贴最后一段比较关键的:

// Need to determine the constructor...
Constructor[] ctors = determineConstructorsFromBeanPostProcessors(beanClass, beanName);
if (ctors != null ||
        mbd.getResolvedAutowireMode() == RootBeanDefinition.AUTOWIRE_CONSTRUCTOR ||
        mbd.hasConstructorArgumentValues() || !ObjectUtils.isEmpty(args))  {
    return autowireConstructor(beanName, mbd, ctors, args);
}

// No special handling: simply use no-arg constructor.
return instantiateBean(beanName, mbd);

意思是bean标签使用构造函数注入属性的话,执行第6行,否则执行第10行。MultiFunctionBean使用默认构造函数,使用setter注入属性,因此执行第10行代码:

protected BeanWrapper instantiateBean(final String beanName, final RootBeanDefinition mbd) {
    try {
        Object beanInstance;
        final BeanFactory parent = this;
        if (System.getSecurityManager() != null) {
            beanInstance = AccessController.doPrivileged(new PrivilegedAction<Object>() {
                public Object run() {
                    return getInstantiationStrategy().instantiate(mbd, beanName, parent);
                }
            }, getAccessControlContext());
        }
        else {
            beanInstance = getInstantiationStrategy().instantiate(mbd, beanName, parent);
        }
        BeanWrapper bw = new BeanWrapperImpl(beanInstance);
        initBeanWrapper(bw);
        return bw;
    }
    catch (Throwable ex) {
        throw new BeanCreationException(mbd.getResourceDescription(), beanName, "Instantiation of bean failed", ex);
    }
}

代码执行到13行:

public Object instantiate(RootBeanDefinition beanDefinition, String beanName, BeanFactory owner) {
    // Don't override the class with CGLIB if no overrides.
    if (beanDefinition.getMethodOverrides().isEmpty()) {
        Constructor<?> constructorToUse;
        synchronized (beanDefinition.constructorArgumentLock) {
            constructorToUse = (Constructor<?>) beanDefinition.resolvedConstructorOrFactoryMethod;
            if (constructorToUse == null) {
                final Class clazz = beanDefinition.getBeanClass();
                if (clazz.isInterface()) {
                    throw new BeanInstantiationException(clazz, "Specified class is an interface");
                }
                try {
                    if (System.getSecurityManager() != null) {
                        constructorToUse = AccessController.doPrivileged(new PrivilegedExceptionAction<Constructor>() {
                            public Constructor run() throws Exception {
                                return clazz.getDeclaredConstructor((Class[]) null);
                            }
                        });
                    }
                    else {
                        constructorToUse = clazz.getDeclaredConstructor((Class[]) null);
                    }
                    beanDefinition.resolvedConstructorOrFactoryMethod = constructorToUse;
                }
                catch (Exception ex) {
                    throw new BeanInstantiationException(clazz, "No default constructor found", ex);
                }
            }
        }
        return BeanUtils.instantiateClass(constructorToUse);
    }
    else {
        // Must generate CGLIB subclass.
        return instantiateWithMethodInjection(beanDefinition, beanName, owner);
    }
}

整段代码都在做一件事情,就是选择一个使用的构造函数。当然第9行顺带做了一个判断:实例化一个接口将报错。

最后调用到30行,看一下代码:

public static <T> T instantiateClass(Constructor<T> ctor, Object... args) throws BeanInstantiationException {
    Assert.notNull(ctor, "Constructor must not be null");
    try {
        ReflectionUtils.makeAccessible(ctor);
        return ctor.newInstance(args);
    }
    catch (InstantiationException ex) {
        throw new BeanInstantiationException(ctor.getDeclaringClass(),
                "Is it an abstract class?", ex);
    }
    catch (IllegalAccessException ex) {
        throw new BeanInstantiationException(ctor.getDeclaringClass(),
                "Is the constructor accessible?", ex);
    }
    catch (IllegalArgumentException ex) {
        throw new BeanInstantiationException(ctor.getDeclaringClass(),
                "Illegal arguments for constructor", ex);
    }
    catch (InvocationTargetException ex) {
        throw new BeanInstantiationException(ctor.getDeclaringClass(),
                "Constructor threw exception", ex.getTargetException());
    }
}

通过反射生成Bean的实例。看到前面有一步makeAccessible,这意味着即使Bean的构造函数是private、protected的,依然不影响Bean的构造

最后注意一下,这里被实例化出来的Bean并不会直接返回,而是会被包装为BeanWrapper继续在后面使用。



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