Jedis对redis的操作详解

通过前一篇《redis的简单使用》的简单介绍,本篇主要阐述Jedis对redis的五大类型的操作:字符串、列表、散列、集合、有序集合。

JedisUtil

这里的测试用例采用junit4进行运行,准备代码如下:

private static final String ipAddr = "10.10.195.112";
    private static final int port = 6379;
    private static Jedis jedis= null;

    @BeforeClass
    public static void init()
    {
        jedis = JedisUtil.getInstance().getJedis(ipAddr, port);
    }

    @AfterClass
    public static void close()
    {
        JedisUtil.getInstance().closeJedis(jedis,ipAddr, port);
    }

其中JedisUtil是对jedis做的简单封装,代码如下:

import org.apache.log4j.Logger;

import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

import redis.clients.jedis.Jedis;
import redis.clients.jedis.JedisPool;
import redis.clients.jedis.JedisPoolConfig;

public class JedisUtil
{
    private Logger logger = Logger.getLogger(this.getClass().getName());

    private JedisUtil(){}

    private static class RedisUtilHolder{
        private static final JedisUtil instance = new JedisUtil();
    }

    public static JedisUtil getInstance(){
        return RedisUtilHolder.instance;
    }

    private static Map<String,JedisPool> maps = new HashMap<String,JedisPool>();

    private static JedisPool getPool(String ip, int port){
        String key = ip+":"+port;
        JedisPool pool = null;
        if(!maps.containsKey(key))
        {
            JedisPoolConfig config = new JedisPoolConfig();
            config.setMaxActive(RedisConfig.MAX_ACTIVE);
            config.setMaxIdle(RedisConfig.MAX_IDLE);
            config.setMaxWait(RedisConfig.MAX_WAIT);
            config.setTestOnBorrow(true);
            config.setTestOnReturn(true);

            pool = new JedisPool(config,ip,port,RedisConfig.TIMEOUT);
            maps.put(key, pool);
        }
        else
        {
            pool = maps.get(key);
        }
        return pool;        
    }

    public Jedis getJedis(String ip, int port)
    {
        Jedis jedis = null;
        int count = 0;
        do
        {
            try
            {
                jedis = getPool(ip,port).getResource();
            }
            catch (Exception e)
            {
                logger.error("get redis master1 failed!",e);
                getPool(ip,port).returnBrokenResource(jedis);
            }
        }
        while(jedis == null && count<RedisConfig.RETRY_NUM);
        return jedis;
    }

    public void closeJedis(Jedis jedis, String ip, int port){
        if(jedis != null)
        {
            getPool(ip,port).returnResource(jedis);
        }
    }
}

public class RedisConfig
{
    //可用连接实例的最大数目,默认值为8;
    //如果赋值为-1,则表示不限制;如果pool已经分配了maxActive个jedis实例,则此时pool的状态为exhausted(耗尽)。
    public static int MAX_ACTIVE = 1024;

    //控制一个pool最多有多少个状态为idle(空闲的)的jedis实例,默认值也是8。
    public static int MAX_IDLE = 200;

    //等待可用连接的最大时间,单位毫秒,默认值为-1,表示永不超时。如果超过等待时间,则直接抛出JedisConnectionException;
    public static int MAX_WAIT = 10000;

    public static int TIMEOUT = 10000;

    public static int RETRY_NUM = 5;
}

键操作

 @Test public void testKey() throws InterruptedException
    {
        System.out.println("清空数据:"+jedis.flushDB());
        System.out.println("判断某个键是否存在:"+jedis.exists("username"));
        System.out.println("新增<'username','zzh'>的键值对:"+jedis.set("username", "zzh"));
        System.out.println(jedis.exists("name"));
        System.out.println("新增<'password','password'>的键值对:"+jedis.set("password", "password"));
        System.out.print("系统中所有的键如下:");
        Set<String> keys = jedis.keys("*");
        System.out.println(keys);
        System.out.println("删除键password:"+jedis.del("password"));
        System.out.println("判断键password是否存在:"+jedis.exists("password"));
        System.out.println("设置键username的过期时间为5s:"+jedis.expire("username", 5));
        TimeUnit.SECONDS.sleep(2);
        System.out.println("查看键username的剩余生存时间:"+jedis.ttl("username"));
        System.out.println("移除键username的生存时间:"+jedis.persist("username"));
        System.out.println("查看键username的剩余生存时间:"+jedis.ttl("username"));
        System.out.println("查看键username所存储的值的类型:"+jedis.type("username"));
    }

输出结果:

清空数据:OK
判断某个键是否存在:false
新增<'username','zzh'>的键值对:OK
false
新增<'password','password'>的键值对:OK
系统中所有的键如下:[username, password]
删除键password:1
判断键password是否存在:false
设置键username的过期时间为5s:1
查看键username的剩余生存时间:3
移除键username的生存时间:1
查看键username的剩余生存时间:-1
查看键username所存储的值的类型:string

字符串操作

在Redis里面,字符串可以存储三种类型的值:

  • 字节串(byte string)
  • 整数
  • 浮点数

字节串

  @Test public void testString() throws InterruptedException
    {
        jedis.flushDB();
        System.out.println("===========增加数据===========");
        System.out.println(jedis.set("key1","value1"));
        System.out.println(jedis.set("key2","value2"));
        System.out.println(jedis.set("key3", "value3"));
        System.out.println("删除键key2:"+jedis.del("key2"));
        System.out.println("获取键key2:"+jedis.get("key2"));
        System.out.println("修改key1:"+jedis.set("key1", "value1Changed"));
        System.out.println("获取key1的值:"+jedis.get("key1"));
        System.out.println("在key3后面加入值:"+jedis.append("key3", "End"));
        System.out.println("key3的值:"+jedis.get("key3"));
        System.out.println("增加多个键值对:"+jedis.mset("key01","value01","key02","value02","key03","value03"));
        System.out.println("获取多个键值对:"+jedis.mget("key01","key02","key03"));
        System.out.println("获取多个键值对:"+jedis.mget("key01","key02","key03","key04"));
        System.out.println("删除多个键值对:"+jedis.del(new String[]{"key01","key02"}));
        System.out.println("获取多个键值对:"+jedis.mget("key01","key02","key03"));

        jedis.flushDB();
        System.out.println("===========新增键值对防止覆盖原先值==============");
        System.out.println(jedis.setnx("key1", "value1"));
        System.out.println(jedis.setnx("key2", "value2"));
        System.out.println(jedis.setnx("key2", "value2-new"));
        System.out.println(jedis.get("key1"));
        System.out.println(jedis.get("key2"));

        System.out.println("===========新增键值对并设置有效时间=============");
        System.out.println(jedis.setex("key3", 2, "value3"));
        System.out.println(jedis.get("key3"));
        TimeUnit.SECONDS.sleep(3);
        System.out.println(jedis.get("key3"));

        System.out.println("===========获取原值,更新为新值==========");//GETSET is an atomic set this value and return the old value command.
        System.out.println(jedis.getSet("key2", "key2GetSet"));
        System.out.println(jedis.get("key2"));

        System.out.println("获得key2的值的字串:"+jedis.getrange("key2", 2, 4));
    }

输出结果:

===========增加数据===========
OK
OK
OK
删除键key2:1
获取键key2:null
修改key1:OK
获取key1的值:value1Changed
在key3后面加入值:9
key3的值:value3End
增加多个键值对:OK
获取多个键值对:[value01, value02, value03]
获取多个键值对:[value01, value02, value03, null]
删除多个键值对:2
获取多个键值对:[null, null, value03]
===========新增键值对防止覆盖原先值==============
1
1
0
value1
value2
===========新增键值对并设置有效时间=============
OK
value3
null
===========获取原值,更新为新值==========
value2
key2GetSet
获得key2的值的字串:y2G

memcached和redis同样有append的操作,但是memcached有prepend的操作,redis中并没有。

整数和浮点数

 @Test public void testNumber()
    {
        jedis.flushDB();
        jedis.set("key1", "1");
        jedis.set("key2", "2");
        jedis.set("key3", "2.3");
        System.out.println("key1的值:"+jedis.get("key1"));
        System.out.println("key2的值:"+jedis.get("key2"));
        System.out.println("key1的值加1:"+jedis.incr("key1"));
        System.out.println("获取key1的值:"+jedis.get("key1"));
        System.out.println("key2的值减1:"+jedis.decr("key2"));
        System.out.println("获取key2的值:"+jedis.get("key2"));
        System.out.println("将key1的值加上整数5:"+jedis.incrBy("key1", 5));
        System.out.println("获取key1的值:"+jedis.get("key1"));
        System.out.println("将key2的值减去整数5:"+jedis.decrBy("key2", 5));
        System.out.println("获取key2的值:"+jedis.get("key2"));
    }

输出结果:

key1的值:1
key2的值:2
key1的值加1:2
获取key1的值:2
key2的值减1:1
获取key2的值:1
将key1的值加上整数5:7
获取key1的值:7
将key2的值减去整数5:-4
获取key2的值:-4

在redis2.6或以上版本中有这个命令:incrbyfloat,即将键存储的值加上浮点数amount,jedis-2.1.0中不支持这一操作。

列表

@Test public void testList()
{
    jedis.flushDB();
    System.out.println("===========添加一个list===========");
    jedis.lpush("collections", "ArrayList", "Vector", "Stack", "HashMap", "WeakHashMap", "LinkedHashMap");
    jedis.lpush("collections", "HashSet");
    jedis.lpush("collections", "TreeSet");
    jedis.lpush("collections", "TreeMap");
    System.out.println("collections的内容:"+jedis.lrange("collections", 0, -1));//-1代表倒数第一个元素,-2代表倒数第二个元素
    System.out.println("collections区间0-3的元素:"+jedis.lrange("collections",0,3));
    System.out.println("===============================");
    // 删除列表指定的值 ,第二个参数为删除的个数(有重复时),后add进去的值先被删,类似于出栈
    System.out.println("删除指定元素个数:"+jedis.lrem("collections", 2, "HashMap"));
    System.out.println("collections的内容:"+jedis.lrange("collections", 0, -1));
    System.out.println("删除下表0-3区间之外的元素:"+jedis.ltrim("collections", 0, 3));
    System.out.println("collections的内容:"+jedis.lrange("collections", 0, -1));
    System.out.println("collections列表出栈(左端):"+jedis.lpop("collections"));
    System.out.println("collections的内容:"+jedis.lrange("collections", 0, -1));
    System.out.println("collections添加元素,从列表右端,与lpush相对应:"+jedis.rpush("collections", "EnumMap"));
    System.out.println("collections的内容:"+jedis.lrange("collections", 0, -1));
    System.out.println("collections列表出栈(右端):"+jedis.rpop("collections"));
    System.out.println("collections的内容:"+jedis.lrange("collections", 0, -1));
    System.out.println("修改collections指定下标1的内容:"+jedis.lset("collections", 1, "LinkedArrayList"));
    System.out.println("collections的内容:"+jedis.lrange("collections", 0, -1));
    System.out.println("===============================");
    System.out.println("collections的长度:"+jedis.llen("collections"));
    System.out.println("获取collections下标为2的元素:"+jedis.lindex("collections", 2));
    System.out.println("===============================");
    jedis.lpush("sortedList", "3","6","2","0","7","4");
    System.out.println("sortedList排序前:"+jedis.lrange("sortedList", 0, -1));
    System.out.println(jedis.sort("sortedList"));
    System.out.println("sortedList排序后:"+jedis.lrange("sortedList", 0, -1));
}

输出结果:

===========添加一个list===========
collections的内容:[TreeMap, TreeSet, HashSet, LinkedHashMap, WeakHashMap, HashMap, Stack, Vector, ArrayList]
collections区间0-3的元素:[TreeMap, TreeSet, HashSet, LinkedHashMap]
===============================
删除指定元素个数:1
collections的内容:[TreeMap, TreeSet, HashSet, LinkedHashMap, WeakHashMap, Stack, Vector, ArrayList]
删除下表0-3区间之外的元素:OK
collections的内容:[TreeMap, TreeSet, HashSet, LinkedHashMap]
collections列表出栈(左端):TreeMap
collections的内容:[TreeSet, HashSet, LinkedHashMap]
collections添加元素,从列表右端,与lpush相对应:4
collections的内容:[TreeSet, HashSet, LinkedHashMap, EnumMap]
collections列表出栈(右端):EnumMap
collections的内容:[TreeSet, HashSet, LinkedHashMap]
修改collections指定下标1的内容:OK
collections的内容:[TreeSet, LinkedArrayList, LinkedHashMap]
===============================
collections的长度:3
获取collections下标为2的元素:LinkedHashMap
===============================
sortedList排序前:[4, 7, 0, 2, 6, 3]
[0, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7]
sortedList排序后:[4, 7, 0, 2, 6, 3]

Redis中还有阻塞式的列表弹出命令以及在列表之间移动元素的命令:blpop, brpop, rpoplpush, brpoplpush等。

集合(Set)

  @Test public void testSet()
    {
        jedis.flushDB();
        System.out.println("============向集合中添加元素============");
        System.out.println(jedis.sadd("eleSet", "e1","e2","e4","e3","e0","e8","e7","e5"));
        System.out.println(jedis.sadd("eleSet", "e6"));
        System.out.println(jedis.sadd("eleSet", "e6"));
        System.out.println("eleSet的所有元素为:"+jedis.smembers("eleSet"));
        System.out.println("删除一个元素e0:"+jedis.srem("eleSet", "e0"));
        System.out.println("eleSet的所有元素为:"+jedis.smembers("eleSet"));
        System.out.println("删除两个元素e7和e6:"+jedis.srem("eleSet", "e7","e6"));
        System.out.println("eleSet的所有元素为:"+jedis.smembers("eleSet"));
        System.out.println("随机的移除集合中的一个元素:"+jedis.spop("eleSet"));
        System.out.println("随机的移除集合中的一个元素:"+jedis.spop("eleSet"));
        System.out.println("eleSet的所有元素为:"+jedis.smembers("eleSet"));
        System.out.println("eleSet中包含元素的个数:"+jedis.scard("eleSet"));
        System.out.println("e3是否在eleSet中:"+jedis.sismember("eleSet", "e3"));
        System.out.println("e1是否在eleSet中:"+jedis.sismember("eleSet", "e1"));
        System.out.println("e1是否在eleSet中:"+jedis.sismember("eleSet", "e5"));
        System.out.println("=================================");
        System.out.println(jedis.sadd("eleSet1", "e1","e2","e4","e3","e0","e8","e7","e5"));
        System.out.println(jedis.sadd("eleSet2", "e1","e2","e4","e3","e0","e8"));
        System.out.println("将eleSet1中删除e1并存入eleSet3中:"+jedis.smove("eleSet1", "eleSet3", "e1"));
        System.out.println("将eleSet1中删除e2并存入eleSet3中:"+jedis.smove("eleSet1", "eleSet3", "e2"));
        System.out.println("eleSet1中的元素:"+jedis.smembers("eleSet1"));
        System.out.println("eleSet3中的元素:"+jedis.smembers("eleSet3"));
        System.out.println("============集合运算=================");
        System.out.println("eleSet1中的元素:"+jedis.smembers("eleSet1"));
        System.out.println("eleSet2中的元素:"+jedis.smembers("eleSet2"));
        System.out.println("eleSet1和eleSet2的交集:"+jedis.sinter("eleSet1","eleSet2"));
        System.out.println("eleSet1和eleSet2的并集:"+jedis.sunion("eleSet1","eleSet2"));
        System.out.println("eleSet1和eleSet2的差集:"+jedis.sdiff("eleSet1","eleSet2"));//eleSet1中有,eleSet2中没有
    }

输出结果:

============向集合中添加元素============
8
1
0
eleSet的所有元素为:[e3, e4, e1, e2, e0, e8, e7, e6, e5]
删除一个元素e0:1
eleSet的所有元素为:[e3, e4, e1, e2, e8, e7, e6, e5]
删除两个元素e7和e6:2
eleSet的所有元素为:[e3, e4, e1, e2, e8, e5]
随机的移除集合中的一个元素:e5
随机的移除集合中的一个元素:e2
eleSet的所有元素为:[e3, e4, e1, e8]
eleSet中包含元素的个数:4
e3是否在eleSet中:true
e1是否在eleSet中:true
e1是否在eleSet中:false
=================================
8
6
将eleSet1中删除e1并存入eleSet3中:1
将eleSet1中删除e2并存入eleSet3中:1
eleSet1中的元素:[e3, e4, e0, e8, e7, e5]
eleSet3中的元素:[e1, e2]
============集合运算=================
eleSet1中的元素:[e3, e4, e0, e8, e7, e5]
eleSet2中的元素:[e3, e4, e1, e2, e0, e8]
eleSet1和eleSet2的交集:[e3, e4, e0, e8]
eleSet1和eleSet2的并集:[e3, e4, e1, e2, e0, e8, e7, e5]
eleSet1和eleSet2的差集:[e7, e5]

关于Set还有一些其他命令:srandmember, sdiffstore, sinterstore, sunionstore等。

散列

@Test public void testHash()
    {
        jedis.flushDB();
        Map<String,String> map = new HashMap<>();
        map.put("key1","value1");
        map.put("key2","value2");
        map.put("key3","value3");
        map.put("key4","value4");
        jedis.hmset("hash",map);
        jedis.hset("hash", "key5", "value5");
        System.out.println("散列hash的所有键值对为:"+jedis.hgetAll("hash"));//return Map<String,String>
        System.out.println("散列hash的所有键为:"+jedis.hkeys("hash"));//return Set<String>
        System.out.println("散列hash的所有值为:"+jedis.hvals("hash"));//return List<String>
        System.out.println("将key6保存的值加上一个整数,如果key6不存在则添加key6:"+jedis.hincrBy("hash", "key6", 6));
        System.out.println("散列hash的所有键值对为:"+jedis.hgetAll("hash"));
        System.out.println("将key6保存的值加上一个整数,如果key6不存在则添加key6:"+jedis.hincrBy("hash", "key6", 3));
        System.out.println("散列hash的所有键值对为:"+jedis.hgetAll("hash"));
        System.out.println("删除一个或者多个键值对:"+jedis.hdel("hash", "key2"));
        System.out.println("散列hash的所有键值对为:"+jedis.hgetAll("hash"));
        System.out.println("散列hash中键值对的个数:"+jedis.hlen("hash"));
        System.out.println("判断hash中是否存在key2:"+jedis.hexists("hash","key2"));
        System.out.println("判断hash中是否存在key3:"+jedis.hexists("hash","key3"));
        System.out.println("获取hash中的值:"+jedis.hmget("hash","key3"));
        System.out.println("获取hash中的值:"+jedis.hmget("hash","key3","key4"));
    }

输出结果:

散列hash的所有键值对为:{key4=value4, key3=value3, key5=value5, key2=value2, key1=value1}
散列hash的所有键为:[key4, key3, key5, key2, key1]
散列hash的所有值为:[value4, value3, value1, value2, value5]
将key6保存的值加上一个整数,如果key6不存在则添加key6:6
散列hash的所有键值对为:{key4=value4, key3=value3, key6=6, key5=value5, key2=value2, key1=value1}
将key6保存的值加上一个整数,如果key6不存在则添加key6:9
散列hash的所有键值对为:{key4=value4, key3=value3, key6=9, key5=value5, key2=value2, key1=value1}
删除一个或者多个键值对:1
散列hash的所有键值对为:{key4=value4, key3=value3, key6=9, key5=value5, key1=value1}
散列hash中键值对的个数:5
判断hash中是否存在key2:false
判断hash中是否存在key3:true
获取hash中的值:[value3]
获取hash中的值:[value3, value4]

有序集合

@Test public void testSortedSet()
    {
        jedis.flushDB();
        Map<Double,String> map = new HashMap<>();
        map.put(1.2,"key2");
        map.put(4.0, "key3");
        map.put(5.0,"key4");
        map.put(0.2,"key5");
        System.out.println(jedis.zadd("zset", 3,"key1"));
        System.out.println(jedis.zadd("zset",map));
        System.out.println("zset中的所有元素:"+jedis.zrange("zset", 0, -1));
        System.out.println("zset中的所有元素:"+jedis.zrangeWithScores("zset", 0, -1));
        System.out.println("zset中的所有元素:"+jedis.zrangeByScore("zset", 0,100));
        System.out.println("zset中的所有元素:"+jedis.zrangeByScoreWithScores("zset", 0,100));
        System.out.println("zset中key2的分值:"+jedis.zscore("zset", "key2"));
        System.out.println("zset中key2的排名:"+jedis.zrank("zset", "key2"));
        System.out.println("删除zset中的元素key3:"+jedis.zrem("zset", "key3"));
        System.out.println("zset中的所有元素:"+jedis.zrange("zset", 0, -1));
        System.out.println("zset中元素的个数:"+jedis.zcard("zset"));
        System.out.println("zset中分值在1-4之间的元素的个数:"+jedis.zcount("zset", 1, 4));
        System.out.println("key2的分值加上5:"+jedis.zincrby("zset", 5, "key2"));
        System.out.println("key3的分值加上4:"+jedis.zincrby("zset", 4, "key3"));
        System.out.println("zset中的所有元素:"+jedis.zrange("zset", 0, -1));
    }

输出结果:

1
4
zset中的所有元素:[key5, key2, key1, key3, key4]
zset中的所有元素:[[[107, 101, 121, 53],0.2], [[107, 101, 121, 50],1.2], [[107, 101, 121, 49],3.0], [[107, 101, 121, 51],4.0], [[107, 101, 121, 52],5.0]]
zset中的所有元素:[key5, key2, key1, key3, key4]
zset中的所有元素:[[[107, 101, 121, 53],0.2], [[107, 101, 121, 50],1.2], [[107, 101, 121, 49],3.0], [[107, 101, 121, 51],4.0], [[107, 101, 121, 52],5.0]]
zset中key2的分值:1.2
zset中key2的排名:1
删除zset中的元素key3:1
zset中的所有元素:[key5, key2, key1, key4]
zset中元素的个数:4
zset中分值在1-4之间的元素的个数:2
key2的分值加上5:6.2
key3的分值加上4:4.0
zset中的所有元素:[key5, key1, key3, key4, key2]

有序集合还有诸如zinterstore, zunionstore, zremrangebyscore, zremrangebyrank, zrevrank, zrevrange, zrangebyscore等命令。

排序sort

  @Test public void testSort()
    {
        jedis.flushDB();
        jedis.lpush("collections", "ArrayList", "Vector", "Stack", "HashMap", "WeakHashMap", "LinkedHashMap");
        System.out.println("collections的内容:"+jedis.lrange("collections", 0, -1));
        SortingParams sortingParameters = new SortingParams();
        System.out.println(jedis.sort("collections",sortingParameters.alpha()));
        System.out.println("===============================");
        jedis.lpush("sortedList", "3","6","2","0","7","4");
        System.out.println("sortedList排序前:"+jedis.lrange("sortedList", 0, -1));
        System.out.println("升序:"+jedis.sort("sortedList", sortingParameters.asc()));
        System.out.println("升序:"+jedis.sort("sortedList", sortingParameters.desc()));
        System.out.println("===============================");
        jedis.lpush("userlist", "33");  
        jedis.lpush("userlist", "22");  
        jedis.lpush("userlist", "55");  
        jedis.lpush("userlist", "11");  
        jedis.hset("user:66", "name", "66");  
        jedis.hset("user:55", "name", "55");  
        jedis.hset("user:33", "name", "33");  
        jedis.hset("user:22", "name", "79");  
        jedis.hset("user:11", "name", "24");  
        jedis.hset("user:11", "add", "beijing");  
        jedis.hset("user:22", "add", "shanghai");  
        jedis.hset("user:33", "add", "guangzhou");  
        jedis.hset("user:55", "add", "chongqing");  
        jedis.hset("user:66", "add", "xi'an");  
        sortingParameters = new SortingParams();
        sortingParameters.get("user:*->name");  
        sortingParameters.get("user:*->add"); 
        System.out.println(jedis.sort("userlist",sortingParameters));
    }

输出结果:

collections的内容:[LinkedHashMap, WeakHashMap, HashMap, Stack, Vector, ArrayList]
[ArrayList, HashMap, LinkedHashMap, Stack, Vector, WeakHashMap]
===============================
sortedList排序前:[4, 7, 0, 2, 6, 3]
升序:[0, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7]
升序:[7, 6, 4, 3, 2, 0]
===============================
[24, beijing, 79, shanghai, 33, guangzhou, 55, chongqing]

参考资料
1. java操作redis
2. java对redis的基本操作
3. 《Redis In Action》Josiah L. Carlson
4. redis的简单使用



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