在系统中使用Bean Validation验证参数

为什么要使用Bean Validation?

 当我们实现某个接口时,都需要对入参数进行校验。例如下面的代码
public String queryValueByKey(String parmTemplateCode, String conditionName, String conditionKey, String resultName) {
        checkNotNull(parmTemplateCode, "parmTemplateCode not null");
        checkNotNull(conditionName, "conditionName not null");
        checkNotNull(conditionKey, "conditionKey not null");
        checkNotNull(resultName, "resultName not null");

该方法输入的四个参数都是必填项。用代码进行参数验证带来几个问题

  • 需要写大量的代码来进行参数验证。
  • 需要通过注释来直到每个入参的约束是什么。
  • 每个程序员做参数验证的方式不一样,参数验证不通过抛出的异常也不一样。

什么是Bean Validation?

Bean Validation是一个通过配置注解来验证参数的框架,它包含两部分Bean Validation API和Hibernate Validator。

  • Bean Validation API是Java定义的一个验证参数的规范。
  • Hibernate Validator是Bean Validation API的一个实现。

快速开始

引入POM

<!-- Bean Validation start -->
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.hibernate</groupId>
    <artifactId>hibernate-validator</artifactId>
    <version>5.1.1.Final</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>javax.validation</groupId>
    <artifactId>validation-api</artifactId>
    <version>1.1.0.Final</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>javax.el</groupId>
    <artifactId>el-api</artifactId>
    <version>2.2</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.glassfish.web</groupId>
    <artifactId>javax.el</artifactId>
    <version>2.2.4</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.jboss.logging</groupId>
    <artifactId>jboss-logging</artifactId>
    <version>3.1.3.GA</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>com.fasterxml</groupId>
    <artifactId>classmate</artifactId>
    <version>1.0.0</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>log4j</groupId>
    <artifactId>log4j</artifactId>
    <version>1.2.13</version>
</dependency>
<!-- Bean Validation end -->

实例代码如下,可以验证Bean,也可以验证方法参数

import java.lang.reflect.Method;
import java.util.Set;

import javax.validation.ConstraintViolation;
import javax.validation.Validation;
import javax.validation.Validator;
import javax.validation.constraints.Max;
import javax.validation.constraints.NotNull;
import javax.validation.executable.ExecutableValidator;

public class BeanValidatorTest {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        Validator validator = Validation.buildDefaultValidatorFactory().getValidator();
        //验证Bean参数,并返回验证结果信息
        Car car = new Car();
        Set<ConstraintViolation<Car>> validators = validator.validate(car);
        for (ConstraintViolation<Car> constraintViolation : validators) {
            System.out.println(constraintViolation.getMessage());
        }

        // 验证方法参数
        Method method = null;
        try {
            method = Car.class.getMethod("drive", int.class);
        } catch (SecurityException e) {
        } catch (NoSuchMethodException e) {
        }
        Object[] parameterValues = { 80 };
        ExecutableValidator executableValidator = validator.forExecutables();
        Set<ConstraintViolation<Car>> methodValidators = executableValidator.validateParameters(car,
            method, parameterValues);
        for (ConstraintViolation<Car> constraintViolation : methodValidators) {
            System.out.println(constraintViolation.getMessage());
        }
    }

    public static class Car {

        private String name;

        @NotNull(message = "车主不能为空")
        public String getRentalStation() {
            return name;
        }

        public void drive(@Max(75) int speedInMph) {

        }

    }
}

执行代码后,输出如下:

车主不能为空
最大不能超过75

使用代码验证方法参数

Validation验证不成功可能返回多个验证错误信息,我们可以包装下,当有错误时直接返回第一个错误的异常。

import static com.google.common.collect.Iterables.getFirst;

import java.util.Set;

import javax.validation.ConstraintViolation;
import javax.validation.Validation;
import javax.validation.Validator;

/**
 * 对象验证器
 * 
 * @author tengfei.fangtf
 * @version $Id: BeanValidator.java, v 0.1 Dec 30, 2015 11:33:40 PM tengfei.fangtf Exp $
 */
public class BeanValidator {

    /**
     * 验证某个bean的参数
     * 
     * @param object 被校验的参数
     * @throws ValidationException 如果参数校验不成功则抛出此异常
     */
    public static <T> void validate(T object) {
        //获得验证器
        Validator validator = Validation.buildDefaultValidatorFactory().getValidator();
        //执行验证
        Set<ConstraintViolation<T>> constraintViolations = validator.validate(object);
        //如果有验证信息,则将第一个取出来包装成异常返回
        ConstraintViolation<T> constraintViolation = getFirst(constraintViolations, null);
        if (constraintViolation != null) {
            throw new ValidationException(constraintViolation);
        }
    }

}

我们可以在每个方法的第一行调用BeanValidator.validate来验证参数,测试代码如下,

import static junit.framework.Assert.assertEquals;

import javax.validation.constraints.Max;
import javax.validation.constraints.NotNull;

import org.junit.Test;

/**
 * 
 * @author tengfei.fangtf
 * @version $Id: BeanValidatorTest.java, v 0.1 Dec 30, 2015 11:33:56 PM tengfei.fangtf Exp $
 */
public class BeanValidatorTest {

    @Test
    public void test() {
        try {
            BeanValidator.validate(new Car());
        } catch (Exception e) {
            assertEquals("rentalStation 车主不能为空", e.getMessage());
        }
    }

    public static class Car {

        private String name;

        @NotNull(message = "车主不能为空")
        public String getRentalStation() {
            return name;
        }

        public void drive(@Max(75) int speedInMph) {

        }

    }

}

使用拦截器验证方法参数

我们在对外暴露的接口的入参中使用Bean Validation API配置参数约束,如下XXXService接口

public interface XXXService {

GetObjectResponse getObject(GetObjectRequest getObjectRequest);

}

在getObject的GetObjectRequest参数中配置注解来约束参数。

public class GetObjectRequest {

    @Valid
    @NotNull
    private ObjectKey      objectKey;

    @Size(max = 9)
    private Map&lt;String, Object&gt; parameters;

    @AssertTrue
    public boolean isEntityNameOrCodeAtLeastOneIsNotBlank() {
        return isNotBlank(entityName) || isNotBlank(entityCode);
    }
//代码省略
}

编写参数验证拦截器,当方法被调用时,触发Validator验证器执行验证,如果不通过则抛出ParameterValidationException。

import static com.google.common.collect.Iterables.getFirst;

import java.util.Set;

import javax.validation.ConstraintViolation;
import javax.validation.Validation;
import javax.validation.Validator;

import org.aopalliance.intercept.MethodInterceptor;
import org.aopalliance.intercept.MethodInvocation;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;

import com.xx.ParameterValidationException;

/**
 * 参数验证拦截器,基于JSR-303 BeanValidation
 *
 * @author tengfei.fangtf
 *
 * @version $Id: TitanValidateInterceptor.java, v 0.1 Nov 23, 2015 11:13:55 PM tengfei.fangtf Exp $
 */
public class TitanValidateInterceptor implements MethodInterceptor {

    private static final Logger LOGGER = LoggerFactory.getLogger(TitanValidateInterceptor.class);

    private final Validator     validator;

    public TitanValidateInterceptor() {
        validator = Validation.buildDefaultValidatorFactory().getValidator();
    }

    @Override
    public Object invoke(MethodInvocation invocation) throws Throwable {
        if (LOGGER.isDebugEnabled()) {
            LOGGER.debug("Validate arguments");
        }
        //获取参数,并检查是否应该验证
        Object[] arguments = invocation.getArguments();
        for (Object argument : arguments) {
            if (LOGGER.isDebugEnabled()) {
                LOGGER.debug("Validate argument: {}", argument);
            }
            Set<ConstraintViolation<Object>> constraintViolations = validator.validate(argument);
            ConstraintViolation<Object> constraintViolation = getFirst(constraintViolations, null);
            if (constraintViolation == null) {
                continue;
            }
            if (LOGGER.isInfoEnabled()) {
                LOGGER.info("ConstraintViolation: {}", constraintViolation);
            }
            throw new ParameterValidationException(constraintViolation.getPropertyPath() + " " + constraintViolation.getMessage());
        }
        return invocation.proceed();
    }

}

配置拦截器core-service.xml,拦截XXXService的所有方法。

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
	xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" xmlns:p="http://www.springframework.org/schema/p"
	xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
	xmlns:webflow="http://www.springframework.org/schema/webflow-config"
	xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
         http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-2.5.xsd
         http://www.springframework.org/schema/webflow-config http://www.springframework.org/schema/webflow-config/spring-webflow-config-2.0.xsd"
	default-autowire="byName">

	<bean id="XXXService" class="org.springframework.aop.framework.ProxyFactoryBean">
		<property name="target">
			<bean class="com.XXXService" />
		</property>
		<property name="interceptorNames">
			<list>
				<value>validateInterceptor</value>
			</list>
		</property>
	</bean>

	<bean id="validateInterceptor"
		class="com.mybank.bkloanapply.common.validator.ValidateInterceptor" />
</beans>

参考资料



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